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青岛净化工程风机测试报告-Wind Turbine Report

Wind Turbine Report
Wen-Yu Yang, Qian Sun, Nobuhiro Suga, Yuan-Hao Cheng

Introduction (By Wen-Yu Yang)

Wind Turbine is playing an important role in Qingdao cleaning engineer. Wind energy could make a significant contribution to decrease the emission of CO2 in Qingdao. In the article, “Wind power is crucial for combating climate change”, by Global Wind Energy Council (2012), wind power was one of the solutions to reducing greenhouse gas. Wind farm takes less than one year to build, and it was estimated that wind power reduced 600 g/kwh (gram per kilowatt hour) CO2 emission. According to the article, “The Performance Evaluation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Torque and Mechanical Power Generation Affected by the Number of Blade” (2016), wind energy is extracted by a wind turbine. Blades are propelled by wind and wind energy is transformed into mechanical energy. Then, the rotating blades drive the generator. Eventually, the mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. To build the most efficient wind turbine, we studied the designs of wind turbines from the literature review. There are some factors related to the efficiency of wind turbine such as “number of blades”, “skewing angle” and “shape”.

前言

在青岛净化工程的施工过程中,必不可少会用到风机进行净化。青岛净化风机的有效使用可以为减少CO2排放做出重要贡献。在文章中,“风能是对抗气候变化的关键”,由全球风能理事会(2012)提出,风能是减少温室气体的解决方案之一。风力发电场不到一年的建设,估计风力发电减少600克/千瓦时(克每千瓦小时)CO2排放量。根据“叶片数对水平轴风力机扭矩和机械发电性能的影响评价”(2016),利用风力机提取风能。叶片被风推动,风能转化为机械能。然后,旋转叶片驱动发电机。最终,机械能转化为电能。为了建立最有效的风力涡轮机,我们从文献综述对风力涡轮机的设计进行了研究。影响风力机效率的因素有“叶片数”、“斜角”和“形状”等。

    Shape

The shape may affect forces that the blade faces against the wind. According to “Guide blades’ feasibility evaluation and its contribution to the performance of a micro-wind turbine resembling lotus in shape,” which was published by 2014, the lotus shape of blades is not only a decoration but also a good design to increase the speed of the wind. In addition, the authors compared the skewing angle of blades with 0 degrees, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees. They found out that the angle of 0 degrees performed the worst because it cannot escape the wind streamline and not to affect itself. On the other hand, the angle of 15 degrees performed the best because it can reduce vortex so that the blades would not be affected and could run stably.


形状

形状可能影响叶片面对风的力。根据《导引叶片可行性评估》及其对2014型“微型莲花风机”性能的贡献,“莲花形”是一种装饰,也是提高风速的良好设计。此外,作者还比较了0度、15度和30度的叶片的倾斜角度。他们发现,0度的角度表现最差,因为它不能逃过风流线而不影响自身。另一方面,15度的角度是最好的,因为它可以减少涡流,从而不会影响叶片并能稳定地运行。


Number of Blades

Some research uses a wind turbine of the Darrieus rotor type which has 6 blades to find the similarity with a flapping wing (Gorelow, 2009). This structure has a lot of blades compare to other articles. In addition, according to the article, “The Performance Evaluation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Torque and Mechanical Power Generation Affected by the Number of Blade”, it evaluated the effect of “number of blades”. The power generated by wind turbine could be calculated by the tip speed of blades and the torque of blades. After testing the wind turbine with different blades (1~6), the results showed that wind turbine with six blades generated more power than others. However, most wind turbines chose three blades because of low repair cost in Qingdao clearing engineer.


叶片数

一些研究使用DrieeUS转子型风力涡轮机,其具有6个叶片以寻找与扑翼的相似性(Gorelow,2009)。这种结构与其他物品相比具有很多叶片。此外,根据“叶片数对水平轴风力机扭矩和机械功率的性能评价”的影响,对叶片数的影响进行了评价。风力发电机的功率可以通过叶片的叶尖速度和叶片的扭矩来计算。对不同叶片(1~6)的风力机进行了试验,结果表明,六叶片的风力发电机比其他风力发电机具有更大的功率。然而,由于修理成本低,青岛净化工程所采用的大多数风轮机选择了三个叶片。

After the analysis of the wind turbine design, Qingdao clearing engineer find that the more blades on the turbine, the more wind energy was extracted. Moreover, it was found that the skewing angle of 15 degrees worked better the skewing angle of 30 degrees and the lotus shape could be easily propelled. The performance of wind turbines would be tested how much voltage was generated by a fan in different distances (10 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, and 200 cm).

通过对风力机设计的分析,青岛净化工程师发现涡轮叶片越多,风能就越多。此外,发现15度的倾斜角对30度的倾斜角有更好的净化效率,并且可以容易地推进莲藕形状。风力涡轮机的性能将测试风扇在不同距离(10厘米、50厘米、100厘米和200厘米)下产生多少电压。

Last, we would make a wind turbine with different blades, shape, and skewing angle to test whether the design works, and which design works best in the experiment. Therefore, we decided to make four turbines. Turbine 1 was made of 3-blade with 15-degree skewing angle. Turbine 2 was made of different skewing angle (30-degree) with 3 blades. Turbine 3 and turbine 4 had the same skewing angle as turbine 1. However, turbine 3 was made of 6 blades and the shape of turbine 4 was a lotus. By doing so, we would know the effect of shape, skewing angle, and number of blades in the experiment.

最后,我们青岛德瑞鑫的青岛净化风机设计人员设计了具有不同叶片、形状和偏角的风力机,以验证设计是否可行,该设计在试验中效果最佳。因此,我们决定制造四个涡轮机。涡轮机1由15度倾斜角的三叶片制成。涡轮2是由不同的倾斜角度(30度)与3个叶片。涡轮3和涡轮4具有与涡轮1相同的倾斜角。然而,涡轮3由6个叶片制成,涡轮4的形状是莲花。通过这样做,我们可以知道形状、倾斜角度和叶片数量对实验的影响。

 

Methodology (By Qian Sun)

Overview:

According to (Jiang,2015), the performance of modern turbines is still far away from the Betz limit, wasting energy extreme. The main factor of this problem is that the designs of blades are not perfect enough. Based on Betz limit (Jiang,2015), If the fans are much too big and heavy, trying to extract all the energy coming from wind movement through a turbine as useful energy, the wind speed afterwards would drop to zero, and no new useful energy would be generated.


概述:

根据(江,2015),现代涡轮机的性能仍然远离贝茨极限,浪费能源极端。这一问题的主要原因是叶片的设计不够完善。基于贝兹极限(江,2015),如果风扇太大和太重,试图从风力涡轮机中提取所有的能量作为有用的能量,那么之后的风速将下降到零,并且不会产生新的有用能量。

This subject focus on comparison experimental method, the support of active investigation, case investigation, documents, and reports to figure out the relationship between the performance of wind turbine and the design of fans blade. Four wind turbines were made in this experiment, being divided into three experimental and one control group. The original fan (Figure 2-1) with three triangular blades was the control group, and the setting angle of the blade was 15 degrees. The second fan (Figure 2-2) was the experimental group and had the same design of the fan blade with group 1, and the setting angle of its blade was 30 degrees. Group 3 (Figure 2-3) and group 4 (Figure 2-4) were also experimental groups. Compared with group 1, group 3 had different number of fans blade, and group 4 had different shape of fans blade.

本课题侧重于比较试验方法、积极调研支持、案例调查、文献分析和报道,找出风机性能与风机叶片设计之间的关系。本实验共制作了四台风力发电机,分为三个实验组和一个对照组。原始风扇(图2-1)有三个三角形叶片为对照组,叶片的设定角度为15度。第二风扇(图2-2)为实验组,风扇组与叶片组的设计相同,叶片的设定角度为30度。第3组(图2-3)和第4组(图2-4)也是实验组。与1组相比,3组风扇叶片数量不同,4组风扇叶片形状不同。

 

 

Material:

The materials we have employed to build the fans are sketch paper, glue, toothpicks, Vacuum cup, and cork. Sketch paper and three-centimeter-toothpicks were used to make a blade, and glue shot from the glue gun (Figure 2-5), was used to stick on sketch paper and toothpicks together. There are numerous factors that spurred us to make the blade with sketch paper, and the most rooted one can be the characteristics of sketch paper. Sketch paper is quite durable material and not liable to warp. Plus, sketch paper is light enough to be driven by the air flow easily. According to Gorelow (2009), when this kind of fan was pushed against by the wind generated by the electric fan, the blades are easier to rotate. To increase the stability of the wind turbine, a vacuum cup weighing 250 grams was playing a role at the base of the fan.

材料:

我们用来制作风扇的材料是草图纸、胶水、牙签、真空杯和软木塞。草图纸和三厘米的牙签被用来制作一个刀片,胶水枪(图2-5)的胶水被用来粘在草图纸和牙签上。有很多因素促使我们用素描纸来制作刀刃,最扎根的是草图纸的特性。草图纸是很耐用的材料,不易翘曲。另外,草图纸很轻,容易被空气流所驱动。根据Gorelow(2009),当这种风扇被电风扇产生的风推动时,叶片更容易旋转。为了提高风力涡轮机的稳定性,重250克的真空杯在风扇的底部起作用。

 

 

Procedure:

At the beginning, the sketch paper was cut to make twelve 6 square centimeters triangular blades and three 25 square centimeters peach shape blades. Every triangular blade had to be exactly the same in order to exclude the impact generated by the shape of the blade. Then these blades were stuck on toothpicks through glue gun. The reason we choose a glue gun to stick the blade is that we want to make the setting angle fixed. The measuring data cannot have been accurate if the setting angle is changed during in the period of test.

程序:

开始时,将草图纸切割成十二个6平方厘米的三角形叶片和三个25平方厘米的桃形叶片。每个三角形叶片必须完全相同,以排除由叶片形状产生的冲击。然后这些刀片通过胶枪粘在牙签上。我们选择胶枪粘贴刀片的原因是我们希望使固定角固定。如果在测试期间设定角度发生变化,测量数据就不能准确。

在测量设置角后,将这些叶片卡在软木塞中,并将软木塞固定在电机中。最后,粉丝们完成了。直到这些风扇被制造出来,我们才把这些风扇放在电风扇前面,测试涡轮机的性能。

After measuring the setting angle, these blades were stuck in the cork, and fix the cork in the motor. Finally, the fans were finished. Not until these fans were manufactured, did we put these fans in front of the electric fans, testing the performance of the turbines.

在测量设置角后,将这些叶片卡在软木塞中,并将软木塞固定在电机中。最后,粉丝们完成了。直到这些风扇被制造出来,我们才把这些风扇放在电风扇前面,测试涡轮机的性能。

Finally, these fans have been rotated driven by the air flow, measured the current generated by the rotating fans, then we can judge that which fans are more efficient.

 最后,这些风扇已经被气流驱动旋转,测量由旋转风扇产生的电流,然后我们可以判断哪个风扇更有效。

Results (By Nobuhiro Suga)

Our group compared 4 turbines which have the different angle, number of wings or shape of the wing by testing them using a fan and a mortar. Our group put our turbine in different distances (10 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, 200 cm) and checked how much electricity was made using a mortar. As a result, our group found characteristic from the result. Fig.3.1 shows the characteristic which all turbines have. If the turbine gets farther than 100 cm, the turbine did not respond to the wind. Therefore, the 4 turbines are not efficient to catch the weak wind.

结果(由Nobuhiro Suga)

我们的青岛净化设计实验小组比较了4个涡轮机,它们具有不同的角度、机翼的数量或机翼的形状,通过使用风扇和迫击炮进行测试。我们小组把我们的涡轮机放置在不同的距离(10厘米,50厘米,100厘米,200厘米),并检查了多少电力使用砂浆。结果,我们的小组从结果中发现了特征。图3.1示出了所有涡轮机的特性。如果涡轮机超过100厘米,涡轮机就不会对风作出响应。因此,4个涡轮机不能有效地捕捉弱风。

 

Table 3.1 shows the result of each turbine. At 10 cm, the (3) turbine caught the wind efficiently. But at 50 cm, the (1) turbine caught the wind efficiently. As our group mentioned, if the turbine gets farther than 100 cm from the fan, it will not respond to wind.

图3.1结果(反应)

表3.1示出了每个涡轮机的结果。在10厘米,(3)涡轮机有效地捕捉风。但在50 cm时,(1)涡轮有效地捕获了风。正如我们的小组提到的,如果涡轮机离风扇超过100厘米,它就不会对风作出反应。

Comparing each of our group’s turbine, the (2) turbine which had 3 wings and an angel of 30 degrees generated electricity the worst at 10 cm and 50 cm. Thus, the most efficient turbine had an angle of 15 degrees. Then comparing other 3 turbines, the (4) turbine did not generate electricity well at 10 cm. At 50 cm, the (4) turbine did not generate electricity well as the (1) turbine. Therefore, a wing which had a shape of a triangle is better than a unique wing which had a shape of a petal, similar to a circle. Last comparing 2 turbines, the (3) turbine generated electricity better than the (1) turbine at 10 cm, but the (3) turbine did not generate electricity better than the (1) turbine at 50 cm. The (3) turbine generated about 25 mv and the (1) turbine generated about 42 mv at 50 cm. Thus, the (1) turbine is better than the (3) turbine.

比较我们组的每台涡轮机,具有3翼和30度天使的(2)涡轮机产生的电最差,在10厘米和50厘米。因此,最有效的涡轮机具有15度的角度。然后比较其他3个涡轮机,(4)涡轮机在10厘米处不能很好地发电。在50厘米,(4)涡轮没有发电良好(1)涡轮。因此,具有三角形形状的机翼比具有形状类似于圆形的花瓣的独特翼要好。最后比较2个涡轮机,(3)涡轮在10厘米处比(1)涡轮发电好,但(3)涡轮比50厘米处的(1)涡轮发电好。(3)涡轮机产生约25 mV,并且(1)涡轮机在50厘米处产生约42 mV。因此,(1)涡轮优于(3)涡轮。

Compare to other groups, other group had a turbine which could spin at 200 cm far from the fan, but it generated low electricity. It generated about 19 mv at 10 cm and generated about 5.5 mv at 200 cm. That turbine had a bigger wing than our turbines. Also, comparing to other groups, our group’s turbines generated electricity the most at 10 cm.

 与其他组相比,其他组有一个涡轮,可以在离风扇200厘米的地方旋转,但是它产生了低的电。它产生约19毫伏在10厘米,并产生约5.5毫伏在200厘米。那台涡轮机的机翼比我们的涡轮机大。此外,与其他组相比,我们小组的涡轮机在10厘米处发电最多。

Table 3.1. Result of The Experience

 

10 cm

50 cm

100 cm

200 cm

(1) 3 triangle wings, 15°

41.0 mv

42.0 mv

0.0 mv

0.0 mv

(2) 3 triangle wings, 30°

30.0 mv

18.5 mv

0.0 mv

0.0 mv

(3) 6 triangle wings, 15°

43.0 mv

25.0 mv

0.0 mv

0.0 mv

(4) 3 unique wings, 15°

38.0 mv

26.0 mv

0.0 mv

0.0 mv

 

Our prediction was that the (3) turbine will be the most efficient because it has 6 wings, so we predict it can catch the wind efficiently. But the result was different. At 10 cm, the (3) turbine was the most efficient one but at 50 cm, the (3) turbine was the third efficient one. Also, the (3) turbine did not respond to wind if it got farther than 100 cm. Thus, 6 wings did not catch wind well in the experiment. Our group considered that this was caused by the wing size. Other group's turbine which can respond to wind at 200 cm had a big wing. Therefore, our group’s wing size was too small to catch a week wind. Also, the (3) turbine need more power than other our turbines because it has 6 wings which means the (3) turbine was heavy. Thus, the (1) turbine, which was lighter than the (3) turbine, had a good performance in the experiment.

 我们的预测是,(3)涡轮机将是最有效率的,因为它有6个翅膀,所以我们预测它能有效地捕捉风。但结果是不同的。在10厘米,(3)涡轮是最有效的一个,但在50厘米,(3)涡轮是第三有效的一个。此外,(3)涡轮机没有响应风,如果它超过100厘米。因此,6翼在实验中没有很好地捕捉到风。我们小组认为这是由于机翼大小造成的。另一组能在200厘米处对风进行响应的涡轮机有一个大的机翼。因此,我们小组的机翼尺寸太小,无法捕捉一周的风。此外,(3)涡轮机需要比其他涡轮机更大的功率,因为它有6个翼,这意味着(3)涡轮机是重的。因此,比(3)涡轮轻的(1)涡轮在试验中具有良好的性能。

Discussion & Conclusion (By Yuan-Hao Cheng)

There are many kinds of wind turbine designs. Their difference from another is based on the number, skewing angle, and the shape of the blade. To test the performance of different blades, we used poster board to make four types of blades. Two of them had three triangular blades, but one was skewed at an angle of 15 degrees, and the other was 30 degrees. We also made another triangular blade with six blades, and it was skewed at an angle of 15 degrees. The last one’s blades were shaped in lotus. It had three blades and was skewed at an angle of 15 degrees. In the experiment, we made them stand respectively at a distance of 10 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, and 200 cm from the fan, and recorded their electricity production at each distance. As a result, all of them performed well at a distance of 10 cm and 50 cm. However, when coming to the distance of 100 cm and 200 cm from the fan, they all had no reaction.

讨论与结论(袁浩成)

风力发电机的设计有很多种。它们与另一个的区别是基于叶片的数量、倾斜角度和形状。为了测试不同叶片的性能,我们使用了海报板来制造四种类型的叶片。其中两个有三个三角形叶片,但一个倾斜15度,另一个是30度。我们还制作了另一个三角形刀片六个刀片,它被歪斜的角度为15度。最后一片刀刃是莲花形的。它有三个叶片,并以15度的角度倾斜。在实验中,我们让他们分别站在距风扇10厘米、50厘米、100厘米和200厘米的距离,并记录它们在每一个距离上的电量。结果,它们都在10厘米和50厘米的距离处表现良好。然而,当距风扇100厘米和200厘米的距离时,它们都没有反应。

The reason all the wind turbines did not have a reaction at the far distance was that the wind did not give the turbine enough power to spin around, and the gap between blade and blade is too large to receive the power of wind. We should have made our blade as large as we can, and made the blade overlapped with one another, or we should have made the number of our blade as much as we could, so it would catch all wind and make itself spin around. According to Tan and Teow (2016), the author compared wind turbines with a number of 1 blades to 6 blades. He found out that there is a relationship between spinning rate and the number of blades. When the number of the blades increases, the spinning rate rises as well. However, our six-blade-turbine did not perform as our expected, we believe that it was because of the size of the blades were not big enough to catch the wind to spin around. We think that this experiment can be support designers to modern wind turbines. Since the energy power of this planet is limited, we should do our best to save limited energy and use well on reusable energy. Through this experiment, we can get the reason there are generally three blades of wind turbines have made, which is that it can use the wind power efficiently and save material money. If there is the second chance to have the experiment, we will try to make rectangular blades, and also skew 15 degrees on blades to test performance.

所有的风力涡轮机在远距离没有反应的原因是风没有给涡轮机足够的动力来旋转,叶片和叶片之间的间隙太大,不能接收风力。我们应该让我们的刀刃尽可能大,让刀刃相互重叠,或者我们应该尽可能多地制造我们的叶片,这样它就能抓住所有的风,使它自己旋转。根据Tan和Tew(2016),作者将风力涡轮机与1个叶片的数量比较为6个叶片。他发现纺丝速度和叶片数量之间有关系。当叶片数量增加时,纺丝速率也随之上升。然而,我们的六叶片涡轮机没有像我们预期的那样运行,我们相信这是因为叶片的尺寸不够大,无法捕捉到风的旋转。我们认为这个实验可以支持现代风力发电机的设计者。由于地球的能量有限,我们应该尽最大努力节约有限的能源,并充分利用可再生能源。通过该实验,可以得到风力发电机组一般有三个叶片的原因,即能有效利用风能,节省材料。如果有第二次实验的机会,我们将尝试制造矩形叶片,并在叶片上倾斜15度,以测试性能。

References

Gorelow, D.N. (2009). Analogy between a flapping wing and a wind turbine with a vertical axis

of revolution. Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics, 50, pp.297-299.

Jiang, Li, & Cheng. (2015). Performances of ideal wind turbine. Renewable Energy, 83, 658-662.

Kruyt, N., & Westra, R. (2014). On the inverse problem of blade design for centrifugal pumps

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